Zhang Wentian (August 30, 1900 - July 1, 1976), formerly known as Zhang YingGAO and pseudonym Luofu, was born in Nanhui, Shanghai. He was one of the important leaders of the Communist Party of China and one of the outstanding leaders in theoretical propaganda and cadre education.
Comrade Zhang Wentian joined the Communist Party of China in 1925, entered the central revolutionary base in 1933, took part in the long march and attended the Zunyi Conference in October 1934, and was wrongly identified as a member of the anti Party group in 1959. He was persecuted in the cultural revolution and died of injustice on July 1, 1976. In August 1979, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China vindicated his unjust case. His main works are selected works of Zhang Wentian.
Life of the characters
In 1900, he was born into a farmer's family in zhangjiazhai, Nanhui County, Jiangsu Province. In his youth, he witnessed China's internal and external troubles and actively explored the way to save the country and the people. he studied in Nanjing river and sea engineering school in his early years, and was influenced by the new youth and inclined to revolution. after the outbreak of the May 4th movement, he devoted himself to the student movement, and began to engage in literary and artistic creation and translation, commenting on foreign literary classics, and then joined the young China society in Nanjing. From 1920 to 1923, he studied and worked in Tokyo, Japan and San Francisco, USA. He joined the Communist Party of China in Shanghai in June 1925. In the winter of the same year, he was sent to study in Sun Yat sen University and red Professor College in Moscow, and served as assistant professor, translator and reporter of the Oriental Department of the Communist International. At the beginning of 1931, Comrade Zhang Wentian returned from the Soviet Union and served as Minister of the Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee and Secretary of the central party newspaper Committee. In September of that year, the Political Bureau of the CPC Provisional Central Committee was established in Shanghai. He was added as a member of the CPC Central Committee and became a member of the Political Bureau and Standing Committee of the CPC Provisional Central Committee. At the beginning of 1933, due to changes in the situation, he entered the central revolutionary base. In January 1934, he was elected member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Secretary of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee at the Fifth Plenary Session of the sixth CPC Central Committee. In February, he was elected chairman of the people's Committee of the central government at the second National Congress of the Soviet Union. In October 1934, Zhang Wentian followed the Party Central Committee and the main force of the Central Red Army and was forced to withdraw from the central revolutionary base and began the long march. On the eve of the Zunyi Meeting, he supported Mao Zedong's correct ideas. At the Zunyi Meeting, according to Mao Zedong's opinions, he made a report criticizing the "left" military line, which contributed to the success of the meeting. After the Zunyi Meeting, in early February 1935, according to the decision of the Standing Committee meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, Comrade Zhang Wentian took the overall responsibility in the party instead of Comrade Bogu. From then on to the Sixth Plenary Session of the enlarged Sixth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in September 1938, Comrade Zhang Wentian presided over the daily work of the Party Central Committee. In 1945, at the Seventh National Congress of the CPC, he continued to be elected member of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, he went to the northeast and successively served as secretary of the provincial Party committee, member of the Standing Committee and director of the Organization Department of the Northeast Bureau, and deputy director of the northeast finance and Economics Commission. During his stay in Northeast China, he creatively carried out the line, principles and policies of the Central Committee, and made outstanding achievements in a series of important work, such as establishing base areas, mobilizing the masses, eliminating bandits, land reform, restoring and developing urban and rural economy. After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese War, in May 1938, he concurrently served as the president of Yan'an Marxism Leninism college. After the Sixth Plenary Session of the enlarged Sixth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Comrade Zhang Wentian actually left the post of "overall responsibility" within the party, mainly responsible for propaganda, cadre education and theoretical research. In 1942, he made a rural survey in Northern Shaanxi and northwest Shanxi for more than a year. He has been the propaganda minister of the CPC Central Committee, the director of the northwest Work Committee, the main person in charge of liberation weekly, and a communist for a long time, and has done a lot of propaganda and education work. In 1945, he continued to be elected as a member of the CPC Central Committee and the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee at the first plenary session of the seventh CPC Central Committee. After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, Zhang Wentian went to the northeast. In the spring of 1946, he was Secretary of the provincial Party committee of Hejiang province (now in Heilongjiang Province). In the spring of 1948, he served as member of the Standing Committee of the Northeast Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and director of organization, and vice director of the northeast finance and Economic Committee. In 1949, he was transferred to be the Secretary of the provincial Party committee of Liaodong province (now in Liaoning Province and Jilin Province), contributing to the opening up and construction of the northeast base area. After the founding of new China, Comrade Zhang Wentian transferred to the foreign affairs department. In April 1951, he served as ambassador to the Soviet Union. At the end of 1954, he returned to China and became the first vice minister of foreign affairs. at the Eighth National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 1956, he was re elected as a member of the CPC Central Committee and an alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. At the Lushan conference in 1959, Zhang Wentian was unfairly treated for his outspoken criticism of the mistakes in the "great leap forward" and "people's communization" movements. During the "Cultural Revolution", Zhang Wentian insisted on principles, resolutely fought against Lin Biao and Jiang Qing's counter revolutionary conspiracy group, and was persecuted. On July 1, 1976, Zhang Wentian died of illness in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. in December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was held, which corrected the wrong conclusion made to Zhang Wentian and others in the past. On August 25, 1979, the CPC Central Committee held a grand memorial meeting for Comrade Zhang Wentian at the Great Hall of the people in Beijing. Comrade Deng Xiaoping personally delivered a eulogy for his old comrades in arms, praising Zhang Wentian's life as "a life of revolution, loyalty to the party and the people". On July 1, 1981, Hu Yaobang delivered a speech at the general meeting celebrating the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China. Zhang Wentian's name was listed among the outstanding leaders of the party who together with Mao Zedong made important contributions to the victory of the Chinese revolution and the formation and development of Mao Zedong thought, giving Zhang Wentian his due historical status.
Anecdotes of characters
Zhang Wentian's name is still taken by the enlightenment teacher, which comes from the poem "crane crows in Jiugao, sound in heaven" in the book of songs. In the first half of 1920, there was a fever of going abroad among young students, and more and more people went to France, Japan and the United States to work and study. On July 14, Zhang Wentian traveled to Japan to study Japanese in Tokyo and read books on philosophy, literature and social science. During his stay in Japan, he had close contacts with literary youths such as Tian Han and Zheng Boqi, and his literary works such as fane mountain and rose, Lingguang and a night in a coffee shop had a great influence on him. In this way, Zhang Wentian had a strong interest in literature. From then on, he gave up his study of philosophy and gradually turned to literary translation, criticism and creation. In January 1921, after Zhang Wentian returned to Shanghai from Tokyo, Japan, he became interested in the works of Chinese and foreign writers. In April, I began to read the works of Tolstoy, Tagore, Russell and Pinlin Chu, and translated and introduced Tolstoy's works and related comments and research articles. In September, Zhang Wentian's translation of Tolstoy's view on Art (more than 20000 words) was published in "Russian literature research" in addition to volume 12 of the monthly journal of fiction, which has aroused great repercussions in the literary world. Since the beginning of 1922, Zhang Wentian has been more interested in the translation and criticism of foreign literature. He showed superhuman talent in translating and introducing foreign literary theories and commenting on foreign writers' works. He was discovered by Chinese Alumni in the United States, who hoped that he would go to San Francisco to carry out social activities with them. On August 20, 1922, Zhang Wentian traveled from Shanghai to San Francisco on the China ocean liner Nanjing. During his work study period in the United States, on the one hand, he studied in the library of the University of California, Berkeley, San Francisco with a good foundation of English. The Berkeley Library has a large collection of books and complete facilities. He usually sits in the library during the day and morning, reading or reading periodicals or doing translation. On the other hand, Zhang Wentian worked for Datong morning post, a Chinese newspaper for overseas Chinese in San Francisco. In January 1924, Zhang Wentian ended his work study in the United States and returned to Shanghai on the cruise Lincoln. From September 1921 to January 1924, Zhang Wentian mainly translated and commented on foreign literature, such as the origin and influence of the original civilization, the study of laughter, the development of Soviet Russia's policy, one of the confessions of the Soviet Republic's economic plan, the dance of dogs, culture and happiness, etc. In less than three years, Zhang Wentian translated as many as 500000 words. In February 1924, Zhang Wentian began to write the novel journey. On May 6, he finished the creation of journey. On September 4, he finished writing the fugitive, and on October 10, he published it in the fiction monthly, Vol. 15, No. 10. In May 1925, Zhang Wentian returned to Shanghai from Chongqing. On June 25, No. 12, Volume 22 of Oriental magazine published Zhang Wentian's novel floating yellow leaves -- a letter from Changhong to his mother. The novel has more than 6300 words, and it describes the inner monologue of 25-year-old Zhang Wentian. On February 5, 1942, the fourth issue of the third volume of Chinese youth specially recorded Zhang Wentian's novel. In the process of turning to literary translation, criticism and creation, Zhang Wentian still pays attention to Chinese social problems. From July 1920 to October 1924, Zhang Wentian published such articles as divorce, my opinion on the end of non resistance, the source of chaos in China and its solution, the breakdown of the Japanese Russian conference and reparations and war debts. In October 1924, Zhang Wentian worked as an English teacher in Chongqing Sichuan Provincial Second women's normal school. He skillfully propagated new ideas, promoted the freedom of love between men and women, and attacked feudal ethics. He also organized some students with higher consciousness to study the new social outlook and the Communist Party
Chinese PinYin : Zhang Wen Tian
Release Time:2022-01-26 22:16:30
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