Li Zongren (August 13, 1891 - January 30, 1969), a native of Lingui, Guilin City, Guangxi Province. General of the army of the National Revolutionary Army, leader of the "Gui Clique" of the Kuomintang of China, and the first vice president and acting president of the Republic of China. He was an important figure in the northern expedition. Before the northern expedition, he devoted himself to the unification of Guangdong and Guangxi, laid the foundation for the Northern Expedition and promoted it.
After the September 18th Incident, the Anti Japanese war broke out, and Li Zongren was appointed commander of the fifth theater. In 1948, the KMT implemented the Constitution and was elected vice president. After Chiang Kai Shek stepped down from power, he once served as acting president, but failed to save the national government through peace talks. Later, he left the United States, but eventually he and his wife Guo Dejie returned to Beijing from Switzerland and the Middle East in July 1965. They were welcomed by Mao Zedong and other CPC leaders and died in Beijing on January 30, 1969.
Life of the characters
In his early years, he studied in the second grade primary school of Lingui county (now Lingui District). From the end of 1906 to the spring of 1907, he worked as an apprentice in the provincial public textile art factory of Guilin city.
In 1908, he was admitted to the third Guangxi Army primary school and graduated in 1911.
In October 1910, he joined the league.
In 1912, he was admitted to Guangxi army rapid school. After graduation (in the autumn of 1913), he went to Nanning general school as a probationary officer of brigadier, second lieutenant, and second lieutenant.
In May 1916, he served as platoon leader of the 34th regiment of the fourth division of Yunnan army. Later, he was transferred to Lu Rongting Department of Guangxi Department, and served as platoon commander, company commander, assistant battalion commander, and gang Tong of the 13th regiment of the 7th brigade of Lin Hu Department of the Sixth Army of the national defense army. He participated in the national defense war, the French defense war, and the Guangdong Guangxi war.
In 1921, Li Zongren, who was the commander of the major's battalion, fought for more than ten companies to retreat with him to the Yulin area of 60000 mountains, reorganized the army, trained the military, and waited for the opportunity. He changed the name of the headquarters to "the third route of Guangdong Guangxi border defense army" and "the second army of Guangxi Autonomous army" successively, and took the post of commander (1921-1922), gradually expanding the defense area to seven counties. Later, he served as commander in chief of the second route of Guangxi "autonomous army" (1922-1923), Guilin garrison envoy of Beijing government (may 1923, November 1923), and commander in chief of "Dinggui army" of Beijing government (November 1923-1924)
In 1923, it established contact with Grand Marshal Sun Yat Sen's mansion in Guangzhou. In October 1923, Li Jishen and Chen Mingshu joined the Kuomintang.
In 1924, Huang Shaohong, Bai Chongxi and other departments were united to establish the "Dinggui suicidal alliance" as the commander in chief. In September 1924, he defeated the GUI warlord Lu Rongting. In November 1924, he was appointed by Sun Yat Sen as the director of the appeasement Supervision Office of Guangxi Province and the commander of the first army of Guangxi Army (December 1924-1926).
In July 1925, he defeated Shen Hongying, completed the task of unifying Guangxi, and became the new leader of Guangxi warlord of Kuomintang. After the unification of Guangxi, he served as the special commissioner of Guangxi provincial Party affairs of the Kuomintang and the first provincial Party Department supervisory committee member of Guangxi Province.
Northern expedition period
In January 1926, at the second National Congress of the Kuomintang, he was elected alternate member of the central supervisory committee (January 1926 March 1929). In March 1926, the Guangxi army was officially reorganized into the seventh army of the National Revolutionary Army, with Li Zongren as the commander (March 1926 August 1926) and Huang Shaohong as the party representative. He was a member of the military committee of the national government (September 21, 1925-1928). According to the decision of the military committee of the national government, it was responsible for organizing the first branch of the central military and political school (namely, the Huangpu Military Academy Nanning Branch). In May 1926, Nanning Branch was officially established, and Yu zuobe, the commander of the second brigade of the seventh army of the Institute, was also appointed as the president.
In July 1926, he led more than 20000 members of the seventh army to take part in the Northern Expedition and fought in Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and other provinces. Before the northern expedition, he devoted himself to the unification of Guangdong and Guangxi, laid the foundation for the northern expedition, and finally contributed to the northern expedition. During the northern expedition, he also served as the commander of the left wing army, commander in chief of the Jiangzuo army, member of the Kuomintang Hubei Provincial provisional political conference, chairman of the Anhui provincial government, member of the national government (March 1927 March 1929) and member of the military committee of the national government.
In April 1927, he supported Chiang Kai Shek to launch the "April 12" coup and carry out the "anti Communist and clean party".
In May 1927, Li Zongren was a member of the Guangxi provincial government. He was appointed as the commander in chief of the Third Route Army by Chiang Kai Shek, commanding five armies and another independent division. In August 1927, he, Bai Chongxi, he Yingqin and other powerful groups forced Chiang Kai Shek to come down from power, and they served as Party members of the Military Commission of the national government. Then he commanded the battle of Longtan and destroyed the main forces of sun Chuanfang, a Northern Warlord. In September 1927, he served as a member of the special committee of the Central Committee (from September 1927 to December 1927). In October 1927, he served as the commander in chief of the western expedition army and the Third Route Army. He led the army to the western expedition in Wuhan and defeated Tang Shengzhi.
In January 1928, after Chiang Kai Shek came back to power, he was appointed member of the school affairs committee of the Central Army Academy, member of the Wuhan Branch of the Kuomintang Central Political Conference (April 1928-1929), and chairman to participate in the second Northern Expedition held by Chiang Kai Shek. In February 1928, he served as a standing member of the Military Commission of the (National Government), and in April 1928, he served as commander in chief of the fourth group army of the national revolutionary army. During the period, he was also a member of the prohibition Committee, the Construction Committee, the budget committee and the financial supervision committee of the national government.
In 1929, Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi, who returned to Guangxi, were determined to work hard to build Guangxi. They developed education, punished local tyrants and evil gentry, and strictly restricted administrative officials.
Jiang GUI war
In January 1929, he served as president of the military Senate (January 1929 March 1929), director of the Organization Department of the national army organization committee (January 1929 February 1929), standing member of the national army organization committee (1929 November 15 1930) and member of the Finance Committee of the national government (January 31 1929 July 5 1930). In 1929, he was also a member of the capital construction committee, the disaster relief committee and the National Defense Council.
In March 1929, the war between the GUI warlords headed by Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi and Chiang Kai Shek broke out. As a result, the GUI clan was defeated and fled back to Guangxi. Chiang Kai Shek expelled Li Zongren from his party membership and relieved him of his part-time duties on the charge of "rebelling against the party state".
In the autumn of 1929, Li Zongren returned to Nanning, Guangxi Province to form a national salvation army. He was commander in chief of the army. Bai Chongxi was the commander in chief of the former enemy. He had the third and Eighth Route Army under his command. After that, he occupied Guangxi for a long time to confront Chiang Kai Shek.
In April 1930, he took part in Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan's anti Chiang campaign and was promoted to be deputy commander in chief of the army of the Republic of China (commander in chief Yan Xishan) and commander in chief of the first front army. He marched from Guangxi to Hunan to support Yan Xishan and Feng Yuxiang in fighting against Chiang Kai Shek in the Central Plains. In July 1930, he was defeated by Chiang Kai Shek and returned to Guangxi.
In May 1931, Li Zongren joined forces with Chen Jitang, a warlord of Guangdong, to fight against Chiang Kai Shek and became commander in chief of the fourth group army.
In November 1931, he served as a member of the central supervisory committee of the fourth Kuomintang.
After the September 18th Incident, Ningxia and Guangdong merged. At the Fourth National Congress of the Kuomintang held in November 1931, he was elected a member of the central supervisory committee.
In 1932, he was a member of the Finance Committee of the national government, a member of the Southwest Military and political Commission (1932-1935) and a standing member of the Shanghai Office of the central government of the national government. In April 1932, Li Zongren was appointed director of Nanning appeasement office. He carried out the policy of "autonomy, self-defense and self-sufficiency" and maintained the semi independent situation of Guangxi.
In April 1935, he was awarded the rank of general of the army by the national government. In November 1935, Li Zongren continued to be elected a member of the fifth central supervisory committee of the Kuomintang. In December 1935, he served as commander in chief of suppressing bandits in the Hunan Guangxi Guizhou border region.
In 1936, Li Zongren was appointed director of the appeasement Office of Guangxi, and published "on the scorched earth Anti Japanese War", pointing out that "a long-term war of attrition with planned and gradual resistance When the enemy is lured deep into the vast boundless wilderness of our country, I will immediately carry out "strengthening the wall and clearing the field" and launch guerrilla warfare in the area behind the enemy. In June 1936, Li Zongren and Chen Jitang launched the anti Chiang incident and set up the first corps of the Anti Japanese National Salvation Army as the deputy commander in chief (Chen Jitang), who sent troops to Hunan to fight against Japan. Chiang Kai Shek was appointed commander in chief of the army in 1936.
From February 1937 to August 1937, he served as commander in chief of the fifth Route Army. In October 1937, he was appointed commander of the fifth theater of War (August 1937-1938), stationed in Xuzhou.
In January 1938, he was a member of the Military Commission. From February to May 1938, he commanded the battle of Xuzhou. The Taierzhuang campaign from March to April was a major victory in annihilating more than 20000 Japanese troops. In February 1938, he also served as chairman of Anhui provincial government (February 1938 September 1938) and security commander. In May 1938, after the fall of Xuzhou, he led his troops to Hubei and founded guerrilla bases in Tongbai mountain and Dahong mountain
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